Saturday, August 22, 2020
Chocolate and Confectionery Industry of Pakistan Free Online Research Papers Candy store and Chocolate industry of Pakistan in 2009 is an investigation of marked (locally created) sweet shop and chocolate market of Pakistan. The article uncovers close gauges of deals turn over of significant dynamic players in the business. It likewise looks at contemporary patterns in the nearby sweet shop and chocolate showcase, with an accentuation on giving some helpful data about the structure, standards, challenges and serious scene of the business. Prior to continuing to our center theme, it would not be rash to view the preview of countryÃ¢â¬â¢s financial pointers. Pakistan-Snapshot: The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a medium size, thickly populated nation with more than 170 million individuals living in 796,095 square kilometers. Concerning populace and territory, Pakistan remains at no. 7 and no.43 individually among the countries of the world. It is situated at Southern Asia, flanking the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north. Pakistan, a ruined and immature nation, has experienced many years of inside political debates, low degrees of remote venture, and declining fares of produces. Confronted with indefensible budgetary shortages, high expansion, and draining remote trade saves. During 2004-07 GDP development has been inside the scope of 6-8%. Expansion remains the top worry among people in general, hopping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.8% in 2008, basically as a result of rising world fuel and item costs. Also, the Pakistani rupee has devalued essentially because of political and monetary insecurity. Ice cream parlor and Chocolate Industry Ã¢â¬ A review: Regardless of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s candy parlor and chocolate industry has appreciated a developing and developing pattern in the ongoing past yet its size and development design has been far unimportant contrasted with different nations of Asia-pacific locale. The business has developed with a normal yearly pace of 6.5 to 7.5 % during 2002-2008. Local brands overwhelm the market representing over 85% of complete worth deals of the business. The business overall can be separated between two more extensive divisions to be specific sorted out part (marked portion) and un-composed segments (conventional section). The marked fragment is a greater amount of monopolistic in nature where there are nine unmistakable, dynamic players in the serious scene of this area. Anyway 80% of the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s share is being delighted in by the five organizations recorded underneath. A short outline of major companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ evaluated yearly deals in PKR (1 US$= 83 PKR) is as per the following: Organization name Major Product lines Major brands Estimated yearly turn-over PKR.(1US$=83PKR) Offer % Hilal Candy, Bubble, Jellies, Chocolates, Beans, powder Drinks, Supari Ding Dong Bubble, Fresh up bubble, Tulsi, AamRus, Kopra candy Limopani 3.5 billion 26% Ismail Industries Ltd.(Candyland) Jams, confections, lollypops, Chocolates, Biscuits, Snacks and so on. Chillimili, Fanty candy, Now, Bisconi Chocolito, Cocomo, Snack city, Sonnet 2.8 billion 21% B.P desserts Jams, confections, lollypops, Chocolates, Biscuits, Bread, Snacks and so on. Spacer, Dolphin Jellies, B.P Lollies, Dream Chocolates and so on. 1.7 billion 13% CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Chocolates(Countlines and Molded) Toffees, Chewable mint confections Dairy Milk Chocolate, Ãâ°clairs, Softmint, Velvet 1.5 billion 11% Kidco Air pockets confections, lollypops, Chocolates and so on 4ever, Centro-bubble, Lollies, Punch treats, Chox 1.20 billion 9% Mayfair Confections, Toffees, Creamers, Amrood candy, Ãâ°clair, Cafe bread 0.8 billion 6% MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s(only Confectionery Chocolates) Goods ( Squashes, Jams, sauces, Chocolates-Molded and Countlines , Toffees and confections Milk Toffee, Fruit BonBon, Butter Scotch, Jubilee, Golden Hearts 0.70 billion 5% DanPak Air pocket Gum, Lolly Pops, Candies Chini smaller than usual, FreshÃ¢â¬â¢ O bubble, Choco Bisco, Milko Sip 0.70 billion 5% Sweet Hills Candies, Toffees Dr. Milk, NutKut, Love candy , Cow 0.50 billion 4% All out 13.4 Billion PKR Candy parlor and Chocolate Market Ã¢â¬ An outline Qualities: The marked dessert shop and chocolate showcase is exceptionally value versatile and developing with the heft of deals gathered in mid-value go items. Urban markets represent the significant offer and furthermore for a higher infiltration rate. Different retail value focuses exist inside the mass market portion of chocolates between the scope of PKR 3-25. In Sugar Confectionery significant running sweet shop things fall into the retail value section of Rs. 0.50-1.00. The endeavors made for the acceptance of Rs.2 Confectionery unit by industry goliaths have gone into vain up until this point. Anyway Rs. 2 and 3 are well known value focuses for lolly pops and chocolates run. The business has confronted Ã¢â¬Å"coin-barrierÃ¢â¬ issue in sugar ice cream parlor items in any event multiple times during most recent three decades when every single key player consistently consented to expand their productsÃ¢â¬â¢ cost due to heightening costs of crude materials (first from 25 pai sa to 50 paisa-in mid 80Ã¢â¬â¢s, than 50 paisa to Rs. 1 Ã¢â¬ in mid 90Ã¢â¬â¢s and ultimately from Rs.1 to Rs.2-in late 2008) whereby the dynamic players of the business were constrained to raise their costs at the very least anything besides 100% in light of the fact that next bounce to coin/value category was with the end goal that they had no chance to get out. It would be intriguing for the perusers to discover that such moves anyway have consistently been end up being a Ã¢â¬Å"bitter pillÃ¢â¬ for the business as it brought huge obstruction from customers and exchange. In a portion of the cases decrease in deals as a response of cost increment was gigantic to such an extent that it compelled to driving brands to take their choice back yet they couldn't recover their unique volumes once more. MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s Milk Toffees and Kidco 4ever are great models. To dodge and concede this circumstance (up to last expand) expert dynamic organizations in Pakistani candy store indus try receive three sorts of methodologies , without decreasing or with somewhat diminishing exchange edges, to be specific Reduce the no. of units per pack, unit size, and bundling ( in an undertaking to decrease cost) Compromising in item quality by lessening qty as well as nature of costly crude material. By utilizing close substitute that is accessible moderately at less expensive cost as a substitution of costly crude materials. Appropriation and Selling methodology: About (70-80) % sugar sweet shop and chocolate deals create through discount channel contingent on the idea of item and methodologies of assembling organizations. Practically everything except definitely Hilal and B.P depend much on discount channel to produce mass lump of their all out deals. To help their deals through this channel they publicize vigorously on electronic media to make brand pull for their brands and consequently it power retailers to purchase these brands from entire deal. The fundamental explanation for restricted inclusion in retail area by these two organizations is they don't have premium valued things that could yield adequate incomes to make retail circulation feasible for their dissemination accomplices so they do a constrained inclusion in retail segment. Since these organizations themselves don't underline on retail entrance so their merchants additionally take a getaway course and receive the method of simple selling through WS. Anyway there are organizations like Cadbury, Candyland, MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s and Mayfair that are completely mindful of the significance of retail entrance .Hence these organizations give due significance and consideration to retail inclusion and along these lines apportion assets for retail part. As expressed before the accentuation of Hilal and B.P has consistently been on building shopper get through broad communications publicizing ( for the most part through TV) and pushing their brands through wide-spread system of merchants and wholesalers all through the country . This mix of Ã¢â¬Å"Push Pull Ã¢â¬Å" has end up being an effective instrument in their cases on the grounds that the idea of their brands likewise bolster this procedure as they produce results of mass market with as low cost as Rs.1 , 2 and past. In view of this evaluating technique their items are similarly well known in country and urban towns among center and lower white collar class. B.P and Hilal ha ving this bit of leeway appreciate the advantages of a wide-spread conveyance arrange in 300+ towns and more than 350 merchants across the country (as they have more than one wholesalers in certain towns). They generally attempt to embrace cost authority system and produce incomes through high volumes of deals. Visit dispatches, re-dispatches, re-presentation of old brands with slight alterations, withdrawals, modifications in bundling, item structuring and even formula change are a typical marvel in the brands of these two significant organizations. As opposed to this CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s , Candyland and MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s accept on building up brands and brand value and in this way protraction of value up to last conceivable expand remains their top need. Mainstream Brands , Price point and TradesÃ¢â¬â¢ edges: Mainstream Brands: In hard-bubbled (sweets) class: Price run 0.50 paisa-Re.1: Fanty (Candyland), AamRus (Hilal), Choran Chatni (Hilal), Kopra candy (Hilal), 4ever (Kidco), Butter Scotch (Candyland) and (MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s), Amrood (Mayfair), Creamers (Mayfair) and Fruit Bonbons (MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s) are popular brands. In delicate bubbled (Toffees) class: Price run 0.50 paisa-Re.1: Spacer (B.P) Ã¢â¬ a brand of 450-500 million PKR, Milk Toffee (MitchellÃ¢â¬â¢s)- brand worth more than 250 million PKR and Ãâ°clairs (CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s) can be positioned top three among others in this classification. Starting today (August 2010) there barely exist any 50 paisa candy store unit, those that were accessible, have been changed to Rs.1 value point. In Lolly Pops: Price run Re.2-Rs.3/ - : twin-lolly (B.P), Paint n
Composed Assignment for Industrial Technology Essay 1. The composed task for Industrial Technology has consistently represented a degree of trouble for certain understudies and educators who are required to battle with the CSEC viable territories. Considering this test the accompanying introduction has been made to give a superior comprehension of the method to follow. 2. So as to effectively finish composed assignments applicants should right off the bat become mindful of the prerequisites of this segment. It is significant that every competitor isn't just given these prerequisites (which incorporate foundation and imprint plot) yet additionally that instructors use a meeting or two to disclose completely the means to be followed. Aides introduced to competitors ought to incorporate the accompanying: 1. Foundation to composed task 2. Imprint plot [Samples demonstrated below] THE WRITTEN COMPONENT The composed task will appear as a report of around 1000 Ã¢â¬ 1200 words dependent on the normal modules. These are: Safety Health Welfare Prologue to Computer Effect of Technology on Society Up-and-comers are to show their full comprehension of the ideas identifying with these modules. They should deliver a report that utilizations word-handling innovation. Competitors may likewise utilize other programming bundles (Spreadsheets or databases) to do any examination that might be important to improve the introduction of the report. The report ought to be a basic investigation of a specific organization, business or topic that has connection or importance to the Unit(s) or Subject(s) being considered. It is recommended that one of two methodologies be utilized. 1. Mechanical visits Readiness of a report on a visit to an industry or mechanical site. 2. A report on a specific topic that is applicable to the Unit(s) or Subject(s) being considered, for instance, Ã¢â¬ Transport Ã¢â¬ street, air, rail or water; Ã¢â¬ Communication; Ã¢â¬ Manufacturing; Ã¢â¬ Service industry. The report ought to incorporate drawings, and photos, any place these are important, notwithstanding the composed material. The report should address the zones recorded beneath. Ã¢â¬ The occupations or vocations associated with the specific foundation or topic that identify with the Unit(s) or Subject(s) being contemplated. Ã¢â¬ The standards, guidelines and codes of which workers in these zones must know and to which they should follow, in light of legitimate, budgetary, vital or different contemplations. Ã¢â¬ The effect of innovation on the professions recognized and the procedures required as they identify with the Unit(s) or Subject(s) being contemplated, for instance, work versus joblessness, independent work, security contemplations, strategies for handling and ecological contemplations. Ã¢â¬ Ethical and moral contemplations. A basic gander at the ecological issues, work practices and security, wellbeing and government assistance issues as they are tended to. 3. On the off chance that the applicant is examining: (I) One Unit or Subject in particular, the report should address the territories recorded in point 2 above which are pertinent to that Unit as it were. (ii) at least two Units or Subjects, the report should address the regions recorded in point 2 above which are pertinent to ALL the Units being examined. Mechanical TECHNOLOGY *Table sketching out the breakdown of imprints for understudies finishing one, a few units/subject. Deciphering aides and imprint plot It is imperative to take note of that except if the report is set up as per the aides and imprint conspire given, understudies will think that its hard to score focuses for this segment. As such exacting adherence to the guidelines given through the records above is basic to the fruitful culmination of this piece. Presentation OF THE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT The presentation of the composed task comprises of two regions, to be specific: 1. Subject sketched out quickly and, 2. Strategies/approach at information assortment. In light of the breakdown of the imprint conspire the presentation requests two explicit snippets of data and qualities 2 imprints, one for each. It is along these lines superfluous for contender to be extensive in this area. Model 1. The assembling of conventional Portland concrete at Carib Cement Jamaica Limited. (1 imprint) 2. The accompanying methodologies were taken in social affair the information: I. A guided voyage through the plant ii. Video introductions iii. Utilization of surveys iv. Meetings led with faculty (1 imprint) CONTENT As laid out in the imprint conspire, up-and-comers are required to distinguish the various professions at the business that they have visited. On account of the topic approach, competitors will normally recognize those professions related with that territory of specialization likewise including help staff that would help in the effective running of such a foundation. All competitors are required to do here is to list the professions. Obviously just one imprint is dispensed for this segment. Innovative ways could likewise be utilized if so wanted by possibility to introduce this data. For example Hierarchical graphs. The standards, guidelines and codes to which representatives must know and to which they should follow due to lawful, budgetary, key or other thought. Again this other thing esteems just one blemish on the imprint plot, subsequently applicants are not expected to be protracted. A decent way to deal with bring here is to separate the heading so as to adequately address every segment. Model: Norms Standards address the standard activity of the plant and particularly workers from the hour of Ã¢â¬Ëcheck inÃ¢â¬â¢ to the hour of Ã¢â¬Ëcheck outÃ¢â¬â¢. The tasks here could be ordered with a sign of the time where they are completed. E.g.: 1) Employees check in at security post for handling 8:30 AM 2) Employees report to offices. - 9:00 AM Regulations Guidelines address the arrangement of rules to which workers must follow. These standards must be connected to the day by day activities did by representatives. In introduction these guidelines could be arranged with potential photos of signs mounted on the plant. NOTE: There are focuses distributed independently for pictures, tables and graphs. Codes could likewise be tended to now. These can be portrayed as a methodical arrangement of laws which frequently oversee both conduct and wellbeing. Pictures of codes distinguished nearby could likewise be utilized to improve introduction. Effect of Technology on Careers The effect of innovation is basically trying to distinguish the negatives and positives of the utilization of the gear on the plant (particularly if recently presented) and the impact that these have on the current professions. Be that as it may, competitors are required to talk explicitly to the effect as it identifies with the accompanying zones: 1) Employment versus joblessness 2) Security or preparing 3) Environmental On the off chance that a real voyage through a modern plant was directed, at that point the data required in this area could be gathered with the guide of meetings, surveys or perception of tasks. In the event that the report was finished from a topic, at that point competitors would normally distinguish potential impacts that could emerge because of the presentation of new innovation. As it identifies with business versus joblessness, up-and-comers are required to state whether employments have been lost or positions have been picked up because of the presentation of innovation. Regarding security or preparing, applicants will choose one of these and recognize mechanical highlights/gadgets that are utilized in these zones hitting an examination with manual strategies which were recently utilized. Modern plants are prominently known to deleteriously affect the earth particularly where the outflow of waste is concern. The applicant now is to clarify what mechanical element if any is utilized to control these discharges and expand quickly on its viability. How moral and good contemplations are tended to This segment talks explicitly to two territories, these are: 1) Legal polices on wellbeing, wellbeing and government assistance. 2) Moral methodology in dealing with wellbeing, wellbeing and government assistance. A lawful arrangement in this setting can be characterized as a judicious strategy utilized by an association. This reasonable strategy tries to plot how circumstances/advancements are taken care of inside the foundation. At point 1) above up-and-comers are required to list the legitimate arrangements utilized by the foundation/mechanical plant which address wellbeing, wellbeing and government assistance. These approaches may shift from association to association yet for this situation could include: 1) A wellbeing and wellbeing arrangement. 2) Welfare arrangement created through the human and asset division in the foundation. (Data beneath tries to give further subtleties on security and wellbeing. Sympathetically examine) Safety and Health strategies Protected and solid working conditions don't occur by some coincidence. Managers need to have a composed security arrangement for their undertaking setting out the wellbeing and wellbeing norms which should be their target to accomplish. The strategy should name the senior official who is liable for seeing that the measures are accomplished, and who has position to dispense duties to the board and managers at all levels and to see they are completed. The wellbeing strategy should manage the accompanying issues: 1) Arrangements for preparing at all levels. Specific consideration should be given to scratch laborers, for example, scaffolders and crane administrators whose errors can be particularly perilous to different specialists; 2) safe strategies or frameworks of work for risky activities: the laborers doing these tasks ought to be associated with their planning; 3) the obligations and duties of managers and key specialists; 4) courses of action by which data on security and wellbeing is to be made known; 5) game plans for setting up wellbeing advisory groups; 6) the determination and control of subcontractors. Security association and the board (arrangements) must cover all parts of the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s or the contractorÃ¢â¬â¢s activities Moral A
Friday, August 21, 2020
MSU article decision #2: Describe a critical encounter from the previous two years which expected you to connect with somebody outside of your own social or social gathering (ethnic, strict, geographic, financial, and so forth ). How did this effect you? What did you realize and what shocked you? During my lesser year of secondary school, I went on a crucial/volleyball endeavor with my club group. We headed out down to Nicaragua since this was another experience for everybody included. At the point when we initially got off the plane it was a totally unexpected climate in comparison to what any of us were utilized to. When you leave baggage carousel, you are welcomed by a huge ocean of individuals. The main thing keeping you two separated is a little glass entryway which prompts the avenues you exit from. After we left the air terminal and looked into our lodgings we were making progress toward do our initial segment of network administration. We met in this enormous dusty field with make move bases and a little pitcherÃ¢â¬â¢s hill. We later discovered that it was home to an adolescent girlÃ¢â¬â¢s kickball association. The young ladies were from the ages of eight through sixteen. You could tell that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot and kickball was there entire life, however they generally had a grin all over and made the best of everything. At the point when we were playing with the young ladies, we got the chance to converse with them a smidgen however there were a few obstructions since they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t communicate in English, and we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know a lot of Spanish. Notwithstanding that, we had the option to chuckle and joke with the young ladies. Seeing the manner in which they grinned and how they had the option to make the best or generally out of everything gave me that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t consistently need the material things in life that you can be okay and still discover bliss. On our next crucial, we were part into gatherings to do various assignments. My gathering was doled out to a grade school out in the wide open to work with preschoolers. The drive out was extremely distant from town and the smell of creature waste and infection consumed your nose. At the point when you at long last showed up to the school, it was the size of a conventional school building from early pioneer days. At the point when we strolled inside, we discovered that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just a school for preschoolers, yet it was likewise study halls loaded with kids from first to 6th grade. Every study hall was partitioned by age to attempt to keep kids learning however much as could be expected. At the point when we took the youngsters out to play, they looked shocked at this point blessed. I had never observed such a splendid grin on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s face till I got the chance to play with those children. At the point when the play time was finished and we went to give the school supplies we brought down for them, they gave us large embraces and much appreciation. From the outset I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledge why somebody would express gratitude toward me for an eraser and five pencils, however then I later understood that postulations were the entirety of the school supplies that kid would have for the remainder of the year or even the remainder of their school vocation. At the point when it came time to leave, in addition to the fact that we were miserable, so were the children. Later on as the day progressed, we discovered that since that school was so distant from the fundamental town we were remaining in, they never had any guests and they barely ever get gifts. The school just went up to review six in light of the fact that by that age, children could either keep on going to secondary school, or begin working. Hearing the entirety of that caused me to acknowledge exactly that I am so honored to live in the nation and have the open doors that I do. Those kids may have nothing to do with whether they can wrap up tutoring and attend a university to live effective lives. Few out of every odd individual in life has the decision to better themselves or to change their economic wellbeing throughout everyday life.
Niccolo Machiavelli - Biography Niccolo Machiavelli was conceived on May 3, 1469 in Florence , Italy. He is known for being a political scholar, student of history, author, legislator, and negotiator. Machiavelli is most popular for his celebrated, powerful work, "The Prince" (1513). This presented to him a notoriety of: flippant negativity, being related with degenerate government, merciless (Showing the cleverness or creativity or mischievousness run of the mill of a fiend). Ambitious and Machiavellianism are two ideas instituted from Machiavelli's perspectives as expressed in The Prince. Machiavelli is misconstrued in light of the fact that individuals judge him absolutely on the sovereign and on the grounds that they don't peruse his Discourses also. Numerous individuals scrutinize Machiavelli's extreme recommendations in The Prince. These individuals don't consider the state Italy was in when The Prince was composed. Machiavelli composed The Prince to help spare Italy from visit remote attacks. As indicated by those that knew Machiavelli, he was a strict and good man. The Prince The ruler was written in a period of enormous scope shakedown, viciousness and political clashes. political precariousness, dread, intrusion, interest, Italy was more than once won and constrained by outsiders. The ruler was Machiavelli's useful manual for Lorenzo Di Medici to act in this condition. In the last part of the sovereign, Machiavelli requires a conclusion to this choas, by proposing Italy stand together with their very own multitude against remote trespassers. Machiavelli composed The Prince to help Lorenzo the Magnificent Di Medici to remain in power. He additionally composed it to get back a warning situation in the Medici government. Tragically, Lorenzo didn't concur with the proposals in the book, so Machiavelli didn't find a new line of work. The Prince was unique in relation to different reports of the time in that the sovereign had pragmatic recommendations on the most proficient method to manage the current, existing issues of the period. Different archives were significantly more hypothetical. There is a distinction of assessment by perusers of the sovereign, regardless of whether Machiavelli is essentiallly a decent, strict individual or somebody that is terrible and merciless. For instance, Machiavelli acclaim Caesar Borgia , a brutal, horrendous, despot - abhorred and scorned by many. Does this mean Machiavelli concurs that Ceasar's activities are defended? Machiavelli believed that Caesar's fast and purposeful characteristics were exactly what is required to join Italy. Machiavelli respected the characteristics, not Caesar as an individual. The Prince was written in 1513 yet just distributed in 1532 after Machiavelli's demise.
Wednesday, July 1, 2020
A Bootcamp for College Essays May 14 If theres an article on highly selective college admissions in a major publication like US News World Report, chances are high that Ivy Coach is referenced in the piece. Would a bootcamp for college essays be right for you? Are you a high school junior hoping to knock out your Common App. Personal Statement as well as the supplement for one Early Decision or Early Action school this June? If so, you might consider signing up for this opportunity with Ivy Coach: In the comfort of your own home, work directly via Skype with one of our college admissions counselors at Ivy Coach. In the course of one day yes, one day we will help you brainstorm topics for your Common App. Personal Statement, go back and forth with revisions on this essay until we deem that its in outstanding shape for submission, review and work on your activity sheet, review and critique your Common Application, and help you with all supplemental essays for one college that youre applying Early Decision or Early Action to. Many students dont have a clue what to write about in their college essays. And thats ok. Many students know what they intend to write about in their college essays but their choice of topics is terribly cliche. Just as when you hear a television show concept (i.e., cop helps solve crimes through the help of ghosts), its easy to know immediately if a college essay wont work and we can very quickly hone in on whats wrong with what youre thinking about writing about as well as help you focus on what could be an excellent topic. Well ask you lots of questions to get to know you. Well read some of the college essays that have worked for our students in the past and before you know it, well be off to the races. If youre interested in this one day bootcamp to complete your Common Application (including the Common App. Personal Statement) as well as all supplemental essays for one college that you intend to apply Early to, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org to inquire about our fee and availability for the date that youre interested in working with us. Were looking forward to hearing from you about your interest in this bootcamp for college essays. And if you happen to live on the West Coast, we are offering this opportunity in person in Los Angeles as well.
Thursday, June 25, 2020
I found myself stuck at home sick today, and unable to do pretty much anything other than lie flat on my back on the couch, I inevitably ended up trawling the internet and somehow found myself on Retrospective Miscue, a blog run by various members of the whole language community (including Yetta Goodman, wife/collaborator of Ken Goodman, the founder of whole language and one of the figures discussed in the article by Marilyn JÃ ¤ger Adams I posted about recently.) As I read through the posts, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help but notice what seemed like a rather idiosyncratic connotation of the term Ã¢â¬Å"making meaning,Ã¢â¬ and it occurred to me that what scientists and, well, most educated adults understand by it is fundamentally different from what the whole-language crowdÃ¢â¬âor a certain segment thereofÃ¢â¬âmean. The two groups are not simply having a theoretical debate; theyÃ¢â¬â¢re living in two separate universes, one of which is based in reality and the other of which is not. In the everyday world, I think most people would agree, making meaning involves decoding a text as it is actually written and integrating vocabulary, content, background knowledge, etc. in such a way that the reader comes away with an understanding of what the author is seeking to convey and is capable of generating a meaningful response. Before today, I more or less assumed that proponents of whole-language believed that teaching children to read via Ã¢â¬Å"authentic textsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"literacy-buildingÃ¢â¬ activities would somehow magically result in their becoming able to accurately read (decode) the words on a page, as written, while simultaneously making use of all the other skills. (To be fair, some of them probably do believe this, but theres another, more extreme contingent too.) As I now realize, however, the goal of whole language is for the reader to construct a coherent, personally meaningful narrative, regardless ofÃ the exact words on the page.Ã The symbols representing sounds are a mere suggestion (kind of like traffic lights in Naples); a student may interpret all of them as written, or he/she may not. Rather than being viewed as a problem in need of correction, misreading words (a process referred to euphemistically as Ã¢â¬Å"miscueingÃ¢â¬ ) is viewed as an exciting opportunity for the reader to construct his or her own meaningÃ¢â¬âand to practice examining how he or she constructs meaning, thus taking charge of the processÃ¢â¬âregardless of whether it truly corresponds to what is there. There is no need to impose Ã¢â¬Å"inauthenticÃ¢â¬ processes such as sounding words out. This, essentially, is the workaround for the inescapable problem that many children will not actually learn to decode effectively via whole language: rather than accept that the theory is faulty, its proponents seek to alter the terms of the debate by redefining reading itself. Thus, it does not matter whether a student reads Ã¢â¬Å"ponyÃ¢â¬ when the letters spell h-o-r-s-e because Ã¢â¬Å"ponyÃ¢â¬ still makes sense and allows the reader to Ã¢â¬Å"construct a meaningful text.Ã¢â¬ Indeed a student who makes this error should be praised for Ã¢â¬Å"making meaning.Ã¢â¬ That it is not what the text actually says is unimportant. One blog contributor described her work Ã¢â¬Å"remediatingÃ¢â¬ a dyslexic twelve-year-old thus: Over the last nine months, [she] and I have carved out space to help her revalue herself as a reader. Using rich texts [childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s picture books] such asÃ Winnie Flies Again (1999) andÃ The Napping HouseÃ (1983), we began with miscue analysis and moved on to Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA). The idea, in the very beginning, was to prove to her that she was actually Ã reading (she did not think she was). Her focus on fluency and decoding through various intervention programs obscured her vision of her own meaning making process as a reader. We used RMA as a tool to demonstrate the remarkable high quality miscues she was making, and how high quality miscues are indicative of the incredible predictions her brain was making as she read. She came up with all kinds of excuses.Ã I am just using the pictures.Ã I memorized the book. Each time I quickly came to her defense, pointing out other amazing things she did, like her predictions that were either spot on, or far better than the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s original story. It would be hard not to feel sympathy for a girl caught in this type of situation. Having worked with several students who had taken a test a ridiculous number of times and scored poorly before coming to me, IÃ¢â¬â¢m well aware of the psychological roadblocks that can occur from poor teaching followed by repeated failure and frustration. But while the approach outlined here might have improved the students confidence about reading, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to suggest that it did anything to move her even remotely into the range of her seventh-grade peers, or that it gave her the skills to navigate anything beyond very basic texts. More worryingly, helping students who are performing at a very low level to feel more confident via immense amounts of support can easily backfire, allowing them to assume that they understand much more than is in fact the case, and leading them to much bigger misunderstandings. The irony is that advocates of this approach often frame it in terms of wanting students to become creative, critical thinkers, as opposed to automatons slavishly adherent to a single Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ way of thinking. The ultimate, long-term goal, of course, is to encourage students to become independent thinkers, but there is a rather clear line between a judicious sense of skepticism based on accumulated knowledge and life experience, and a childish, knee-jerk, Ã¢â¬Å"Well, why should I believe anything you say?Ã¢â¬ based on the shallow belief that everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion is equally valid, and that no one knows more than anyone else. Yet the belief that any form of direct instructionÃ¢â¬âor even the simple acknowledgment that specific combinations of letter make specific words and not othersÃ¢â¬ârisks turning children into nothing more than docile sheep, contributes to precisely the latter attitude. And lest you think I am making a caricature out of this position, here is Yetta Goodman on the danger of insisting that young readers hew too closely to the letters on the page: Teachers can send unintended messages that keep the reader focused on sub-skills and distract them from meaning making.Ã When the teacher says, Ã¢â¬Å"Look at the word closely for the little words in the big words,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Check the beginning and ends of the words to make sure the sounds are right,Ã¢â¬ the reader interprets this as Ã¢â¬Å"HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the right way to say the word; say it my way and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be fine.Ã¢â¬ Ã Rather than taking a risk to make personal meaning, readers become very good at manipulating the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s help. If they pause long enough and keep their eyes cast down, or look up with a pleading expression, they can get the teacher to say the word. If the reason for telling a word to a student is to get through a lesson, then that also becomes the pupilÃ¢â¬â¢s goal.Ã Undoubtedly, some students do become highly adept at getting information out of teachers this way, especially if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned that they will eventually be fed the answer. (A lot of my students were shocked at first when they asked me whether a particular option was the answer, and I just shrugged and said, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know, you tell me.Ã¢â¬ ) And if teachers have had it drilled into them that their goal is to keep students constantly happy and excited about learning, then they are entirely likely to intercede with the answer when a childÃ¢â¬â¢s discomfort becomes too obvious. (Incidentally, international comparisons have shown that American teachers are more likely than teachers in countries with stronger school systems to turn difficult conceptual problems into simpler procedural ones, depriving students of the very importantÃ¢â¬âbut potentially unpleasantÃ¢â¬âexperience of struggling through them.) Several distinct issues are conflated here, though: having children look for little words in big words, or telling them check the beginning of a word to make sure it begins with the same consonant they are saying, and directly telling a child what a word is, are in two entirely different camps. The former two are tools that students can use to figure things out own their own; the latter is intended to remove any discomfort by simply providing the answer. (Encouraging students to sound out words is of course strictly forbiddenÃ¢â¬âthis is referred to only as Ã¢â¬Å"an unintentionally taught strategy.Ã¢â¬ ) To lump these approaches together and then criticize them for impeding studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to Ã¢â¬Å"make personal meaningÃ¢â¬ (i.e., make things up) is really astounding. Moreover, the language here is unintentionally revealing about the whole-language worldview: if reading what a word actually says is framed as Ã¢â¬Å"myÃ [the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s] way,Ã¢â¬ the terms of the discussion are moved from the general/social (words are always written with the same letters so that everyone can recognize them) to the personal (the word is x because this particular teacher says so). It is as if the only conception of reading Imaginable were a selfish one. Children are portrayed as wanting to manipulate teachers into providing answers (understandable if they have received little to no direct instruction), and there is no acknowledgment of the fact that teachers do not insist that h-o-r-s-e spells Ã¢â¬Å"horseÃ¢â¬ because they have personally decided that is the case (even though it may seem so to a child), but rather because the entire English-speaking world has a well-established agreement about it. Sometimes there is a right answer, and to lead children to believe otherwise is grossly unfair in the long term. Of course, children, as such, lack the perspective to grasp this context, and so it is the educational communityÃ¢â¬â¢s job to understand it for them. In GoodmanÃ¢â¬â¢s view, however, a teacher does not serve as a conduit between a child and the larger world; rather, one personal interpretation is pitted against another. But learning to read means becoming part of a literate communityÃ¢â¬âand community membership is by definition based on common understandings. A child who is explicitly taught to reject those understandings will thus be unable to participate in it effectively (and, worse, may actively attack it for refusing to accede to his or her individual and erroneous insistences). Teachers who fail to grasp that their role is to help children become members of a group that extends far beyond themselves, and far beyond the teacher even, are doing students a very grave disservice. Beyond that, the message that gets sent is that other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s wordsÃ¢â¬âindeed, external realityÃ¢â¬âdo not really matter, only what makes sense to the individual reader. If ever there were a recipe for producing a society full of individuals hellbent on disregarding information inconsistent with their pre-existing narratives, I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty fair to say that this would be it.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Women in gothic literature are presented as either evil or victims how far do you agree? The Gothic genre is an increasingly popular area for feminist studies, showing contrasts in society at the time and the expectations of women within it. In pre industrial times, women were expected to play a subservient role to men, they were expected to marry young and bare children, they would simply care for their husbands and support the family, they were denied the right to vote or own property and were expected to be the innocently silent, supportive backbone behind patriarchal society. It is noted that female characters in Gothic novels and plays often fall into one of two categories: innocent victims, subservient to the strong and powerfulÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Lucy Westenra, signifying the stereotypical victim, of Ã¢â¬Å"unequalled sweetness and purity,Ã¢â¬ symbolises the change in feminine identity within the story after she shows deviant traits, transforming from her previously repressed tender character into a strong sexual demon. Lady Macbeth, in contrast is never depicted as a soft tender female figure, instead Shakespeare makes her ambitious character apparent from the start, after reading the letter from her husband, telling her about the WitchesÃ¢â¬â¢ predictions, the seed of ambition grows within her and immediately a plan forms in her head, her first speech is one full of strong metaphors, Ã¢â¬Å"come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me, from the crown to the toe, top full of direst cruelty.Ã¢â¬ This initial speech is so powerful and strong, as she summons spirits to give her the strength of a man, so that she has the vigour to plot DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, and convince Macbeth to form an alliance with her, ensuring he will become king, just as the Witches predicted. 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